This was written for Columbia Hi/Chief Jo alumni by Sandra Genoway (62) Chief Joseph was a warrior and he signed the famous peace treaty with the U.S. Government, from which comes the famous statement: At his surrender in the Bear Paw Mountains, October 5, 1877 (40 miles from the Canadian border) "Tell General Howard that I know his heart. What he told me before I have in my heart. I am tired of fighting. Our chiefs are killed. Looking Glass is dead, Tu-hul-hil-sote is dead. the old men are all dead. It is the young men who now say yes or no. He who led the young men [Joseph's brother Alikut] is dead. It is cold and we have no blankets. The little children are freezing to death. My people -- some of them have run away to the hills and have no blankets and no food. No one knows where they are -- perhaps freezing to death. I want to have time to look for my children and see how many of them I can find. Maybe I shall find them among the dead. Hear me, my chiefs, my heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands I will fight no more against the white man." Joseph's fame did him little good. Although he had surrendered with the understanding that he would be allowed to return home, Joseph and his people were instead taken first to eastern Kansas and then to a reservation in Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma) where many of them died of epidemic diseases. Although he was allowed to visit Washington, D.C., in 1879 to plead his case to U.S. President Rutherford B. Hayes, it was not until 1885 that Joseph and the other refugees were returned to the Pacific Northwest. Even then, half, including Joseph, were taken to a non-Nez PercÚ reservation in northern Washington, separated from the rest of their people in Idaho and their homeland in the Wallowa Valley. In his last years, Joseph spoke eloquently against the injustice of United States policy toward his people and held out the hope that America's promise of freedom and equality might one day be fulfilled for Native Americans as well. An indomitable voice of conscience for the West, he died in 1904, still in exile from his homeland, according to his doctor "of a broken heart." Since Chief Joseph decided to save his people by not continuing to fight the U.S. Government, he was not only a warrior through peace, but a hero to his people and all Americans. He tried to keep his tribe on their home land, according to a first treaty that was written and agreed to, then later, a second treaty was written, after gold was discovered in the Wallowa Valley. This second treaty taking away this land is what Chief Joseph fought against.